First, what role has Africa played in the liberation struggle and the creation of an alternative to “European Civilization”? Of special importance here is the place Africa has occupied in the struggle in the United States for Black Power [and against . apartheid (or “Jim Crow”)], and the reconstruction/revaluation of African identity and values. From Du Bois and Marcus Garvey, Malcolm X and Alice Walker, most Black revolutionaries have seen their relation to Africa as crucial to their political, intellectual project. What has Africa—in practice and in the collective imagination—meant in the struggle of black people in the US and worldwide? What ideological, political, philosophical visions has the African struggle for self-determination opened up for the anti-colonial revolt worldwide?